FraudJournal Blog

April 9, 2014

“My website was hacked & on sale…”

Filed under: Author's Post,Fraud,Fraud Alerts,Fraud Schemes,Fraud Trends — fraudjournal @ 2:43 PM
Tags: ,

There are multiple stories of identity theft, embezzlement and other sad stories of lives undone and upturned by fraudsters. What you don’t usually find is a well written article from the victim stating the shock and surprise of finding out via ‘luck’, from someone who was paying attention and informed them. You also don’t usually find a well written article that helps you understand the seriousness of the situation and the long and required attention to details to doggedly follow the trails and fight the good fight of stopping and retrieving back their life and this case, their livelyhood.

Please take time to read through this person’s website article by Jordan Reid of Glamshackle Glam. She is articulate and shows the fiery spirit of an entrepreneur fighting for the right to make a living online.

Keep up the fight against fraud. Trust but verify.



July 30, 2013

The Cost of Over-Trusting

I recently worked a fraud case that involved a bookkeeper and a small but over trusting business owner. Often, these individuals who are entrusted with the keys to kingdom, are truly key to the success of small businesses. They are the watchdogs of the kingdom. They are there when you need them, they keep the facts managed and ‘ticked and tied’ for future reference. So what goes wrong?

In this case it was an emotional trigger. But often it can be, as one of my colleagues put it, the result of ‘the can that got kicked down the road.’ In other words, they were kicked to the curb for cause and picked up by another. This is catch-22 for fraud fighters and law enforcement. Does a company be made whole and move on, do they prosecute and hope the fight will provide the return of both funds and recovery or do they forgive and forget. I have seen the latter, but in about two to three years, the problem recurs and the battle restarts. It is expensive to dig into the archives of financial data and find the smoking-gun for court or mediation. It easy to outspend the loss easily; especially if the fraudster wants to put up a fight. I have seen this process kill a business as much as the fraudster’s theft.

Most of you who become the triage workers of fraud, are called in at the most dire times. The funds are missing, the staff are up in arms or in total shock, and the frenetic pace begins to solve for ‘x’. The saddest part of this is that the cost goes to the heart; deeply.  After all, how could this have happened on their watch? It can get ugly and fast. But it can be the rally cry that unites and brings amazing change and recovery to a business too. This is where the dynamics of the culture of a business really show.

An interesting statistic that was bounced around during a recent conversation with colleagues is the magic number for long-term entrusted employees and contractors that embezzled seems to be around the ten to thirteen year mark. That isn’t to say that a long-term employee or bookkeeper will always go to the dark side, but the cases keep showing up at around that mark of entrusted access to the financial details of the company.

So what is the moral of this post you ask? The moral is that it is the level of trust, not that you trust. Trust is an imperative part of running a successful business. But the rules of fraud are ‘trust but verify’. Whether your family, friends or business; you need to trust at some level. There are no hard-fast rules to avoid fraud. At some point, in some way, you will become exposed to fraud either personally or through others. But you can make all effort to reduce your risk by creating the ‘tone at the top’; by leading by example. Those around you will notice that you take a ‘vested’ interest in your affairs, both at home and at work. They also know that to hide the fraudulent activities requires greater stealth and complex methods to avoid detection. Unless they are in need of a mission with impossible thrills, they will think twice about theft. And the business owner, participating regularly in the financial activity, will notice those subtle changes that trigger their inner red-flags and respond accordingly. In this case it would have been the timely review of the bank statements that would have triggered questions early on.

But remember too, many who come into a serious need, whether perceived or real, will steal to survive. It is human nature to survive at all costs – however most of us have a loadstone of truth that prevails. But these triggers often include gambling or other addictive issues, a burden of medical needs, family financial crashes or a perceived shame. The perception of shame could be feeling below the financial level of others, not having stories to share around the water cooler. Many embezzlers have large egos that require a certain level of attention to life style, and will generously share their loot to impress others.

In retrospect, most victims of fraud and can and often do trace back to the beginning event that most likely was the root cause of theft. But hindsight is always the more painful way to learn a lesson. So those of you in the trenches, take time to educate your friends, family, peers and local business community on the cost of over trusting. Help them put into place those necessary internal controls that establish boundaries and steps of precaution. Wave that hypnotic watch and have them repeat, “Trust but verify, Trust but verify” until you know they get it deep into the psyche.

Stay safe friends and educate, educate, educate.


May 10, 2012

A New Twist to Foreclosure Rescue Fraud

Dear Fellow Fraud Fighters;

The FBI and FTC need our help. Please take some time to become educated about this new scam and get the word out to your colleagues and community to stop this new twist on “foreclosure rescue fraud” because it is a serious threat to distressed homeowners and it is called Forensic Mortgage Loan Audits. Many of you may have heard of this or even come across this, but it has started to increase at an alarming rate.

This fraud is about selling “hope” and they are relying on the buzz word “forensic” to sound credible, necessary and effective and legal. They call themselves:

  • Forensic loan auditors
  • Mortgage loan auditors
  • Foreclosure prevention auditors
  • Forensic attorneys

Yes, forensic attorneys. By using public information, these so-called “rescue” professionals send out mailings to exploit distressed homeowners by lulling them into the false sense that a forensic audit will indicate if their loan was not in compliance, and by not meeting the state and federal mortgage lending laws they can help the homeowner:

  • Avoid foreclosure
  • Expedite the loan modification process
  • Reduce the loan principal
  • Cancel the loan
  • Lease the home to be able to buy it back over time
  • Make mortgage payments to them and they will work with the lender
  • Transfer the property, deed or title to them
  • Offer to purchase home at a price inappropriate for housing market
  • Pressure to sign documents without proper time to review or read thoroughly

Although this scam is preying on the financially strapped homeowner, the elderly and military veterans and their families are being targeted also. As you all know, a mortgage cannot be eliminated by a report, lenders are not required to modify a loan because of this report, the lender is not required to modify a loan and a report will not force a lender to negotiate the terms of a loan. There is no report that is guaranteed way to stop a foreclosure.

Please contact the FTC or FBI with any concerns or questions.

August 8, 2011

Restaruant Breach Leads to Fraud Article

First, thank you to all who inquired to why my lack of posts; we had a death in the family that required my attention.

THIRD PARTY SECURITY RISKSWhy Compliance is Key for Everyone

Those of you who deal with fraud in the retail and restaurant industry are very familiar with skimmers; for those who don’t, we are talking about the hand-held devices that skim the financial information from your credit cards. These little devices are the bane of fraud fighters around the world. And they are getting smaller and more invasive every day. But the recent problem to hit the fraud newsletters and blogs (see article: Restaurant Breach Leads to Fraud by Tracy Kitten, Managing Editor at Bank Information Security), is the breach at a Texas restaurant from a hacker that gained access to the third-party vendor who processes their credit card transactions.

Restaurants have worked hard to make sure their customers’ credit/debit card information is safely handled, that their employees are following the rules, and all the while attempting to keep up to date on technology. However, the costs to upgrade each time a new software comes out or piece of equipment is available, makes a small business wince. And by nature, restaurants are just plain vulnerable to fraud due to the high level of transactions and tendency for high employee turn-over.

But the recent talk of the town is the breach in Texas; not by skimmer, but a third-party vendor that handles the point-of-sale (POS) system information for the restaurant. The Sheriff’s department are reviewing the details with the Secret Service, but they have come to the conclusion that back in early April and mid-May, the electronic information was intercepted by the hacker who had infected with POS system with a virus to steal payment card transaction data. By July, fraudulent charges began appearing. The most recent restaurants hit in the Walker County, have been “fast-casual diners and pizzerias”.

Mr. Neal O’Farrell, founder of the Identity Theft Council stated that “small businesses are often as much the victim of the breach as their customers are”.  As more and more security breaches become types of cyber attacks, small businesses need to start taking a look at their vendors and asking the hard question of “what are they doing to reduce fraud risk” and “how can we collectively reduce the risk”. Merchants that provide the readers might help by offering better trade-in offsets to reduce costs and promote use of the newer equipment and software available. I can’t remember when it was, but I remember I was shocked to find a business that still had a merchant device that printed out the entire credit card number on my receipt.

As the economy gets tighter and continues to stretch our budgets, fraudsters are going to find the chinks in our armor as we become tired a lacx in our effort to be careful; we need to be diligent about consistently finding ways to reduce the risks of fraud. We have to find new ways to help each other out and not rely on the credit card companies to solve the problem. It’s hard to cheat an honest person, they take the time to notice what is going on around them, and they ask questions. Let’s all take time to think about how we can become better at detecting and deterring fraud so we don’t end up having to defend against it.


March 26, 2011

Potential for Elder Fraud on the Horizon

Hello Everyone. I know its been awhile. Today I would like to share concerns from various conversations with others in the elder care community. This group includes tax preparers, CPA’s, business litigators, caregivers, senior care facilities (both assisted living residential and commercial), and health care workers, and fraud investigators. Why?

Well, as most of you have heard that the number our seniors that have aging parents now needing to place them into assisted care and skilled nursing homes and facilities are increasing. Most locations have been able to accommodate the ebb and flow of family and friends seeking help for their aging parents, spouses, partners and family members. Recently I was visiting an assisted living facility and the executive director commented that he no longer has rooms for the growing number of requests he receives on a daily basis. In fact, he now has had to create a waiting list without any way of assuring the families of a time frame when their loved one can be cared for by skilled staff and in a safe environment.

Which brings me to the next point. Due to the huge and I mean that quite literally, huge upcoming increase in senior/elder care needs, locating affordable and qualified care will be in high demand. This creates a large pool of vulnerable adults open to be preyed upon by the fraudsters in the health care field. This includes medical billing, quality care and safe environments where abuse is not tolerated or able to take place, qualified and vetted personnel (as in proper background checks and monitored activity), not to mention reasonable costs for the care received.

One women in a caregiver support group was aghast when she found out that a facility wanted to charge her a very large administration fee, first and last months space/care fee, a cleaning deposit, and a slush fund for small care needs. This amounted to over $10,000 up front for the first month of care. Most families can barely cover the costs of taking time off to care for a loved one let alone the initial upfront costs to begin care. This was a residential home that was set up to care for six elderly residents, and was part of an LLC that included six other homes just like it. There are many of these homes that work very hard to take very good care of their residents. But this home was not well maintained and the individuals that ran the home allowed family members to come and go and hang around as if it was a normal family home, served only their ethnic foods and was not keeping up the care on the home. This was very disconcerting to the woman and she did remove her mother from the home and chosen to take care of her herself. Which is what many are choosing to do because the costs end up meeting the same as the income they were trying to earn in the first place.

Now, having said this, I know for a fact that a qualified care facility with little turn-over and properly maintained premises is not cheap. Paying the staff what they deserve for the hard work, and think about it, it is hard work otherwise we would not have the need for these types of residential and commercial care locations, are key to running a safe and clean environment. Familiarity or routine is key to helping the elderly feel safe and willing to participate in the care they need. One director told me it takes close to $2000 per new employee to get them properly trained at the level he felt was key to providing the care expected for the fees charged and to remain in compliance with state laws and regulations.

Which brings the next point. There are no standards for care and costs regarding taking care of our elderly citizens aside from the currently established medical and government codes and regulations on running a business or medical practice. That puts the burden on the family to research, vet out and locate places they can both afford and feel their loved ones are safe. This also means they are relying on the homes and facilities to do their ‘due-diligence’ regarding their personnel and policy and procedures.

So here is my final point – the biggest potential for fraud is that the needs will over run the availability of qualified personnel to care and monitor our vulnerable adults. Recent economic conditions create a situation ripe for fraudsters to prey on the elderly either directly or through their caregivers as everyone gets stretched beyond their limits. So here are some ideas that I would like the fraud community to spark conversations on to build a grassroots approach to keeping our loved ones safe and out of harms way.

First, educate as many of those around you on what elder abuse looks like and who and where to report it. Each local city/county has an organization to connect you to the resources available. Second, if you know of someone you think is being targeted or IS unsafe, please reach out to the local law enforcement and ask for them to check in and verify all is well. They have access to governmental agencies for support. Third, ask questions if you need answers regarding the cognitive skill level of our seniors. Early signs may be there and steps need to be taken so they do not become pray to neighbors, family, and other commercial entities looking for easy targets. This includes those of you working in banks and stores.

Now for financial exploitation – this is going to be a very serious situation in the next years ahead. The generation of seniors that are now reaching increased levels of dementia were raised during a time when they understood they needed prepare for retirement. This means most of them have squirreled away some sort of funding to cover their final years. These savings have become an easy target for family, neighbors, and I am sorry to say fellow members of religious organizations to zero in on for support. Befriending the elderly can be easy because they believe in giving people the benefit of the doubt, which means most of them if they are lonely, and they usually are, end up trapped before they know and then have no means to reach out in time to protect themselves from the leeches they have welcomed into their homes and life. Not to mention, if they are in a state of dementia they will not remember what they recently did or agreed to at the time they were parted from their financial future.

Here are some sites to research and get your selves prepared to protect our seniors from harm:


December 7, 2010

Tis The Season To Be Thieved

I know, it’s not a real word. But recently two of my friends found out their debit/visa cards had been compromised. Both of these people are careful with their information. So, how did this happen. There is no real way to determine exactly what happened, but we have pin-pointed when it started and worked our way back to the most likely place it happened. So I decided that because most of us will hear from someone we know who had their holiday interrupted by a fraudster. So let’s be prepared to stop them as best we can by staying sharp and prepared to act quickly should something happen.

Once you find out or suspect, contact the bank or lending institution’s fraud department. Go over the recent purchases for the few days. You will need to answer some questions and fill out a form you receive in the mail. If you card is compromised, you will need to cancel the card and wait till you get a new one. Some credit unions can now reissue a card on site, others require you to wait till they can mail the replacement.

Advise the 3 credit union reporting agencies that your card was compromised. Now this is key, you can put a ‘freeze’ for three months or just have it on file that no more purchases can be made on a previous card/account. If you freeze for the three-month period, you cannot open any new accounts or take loans out without going through a process. So think carefully on what you want to achieve. The credit agencies will walk you through your options. I would also suggest getting a three to six month credit watch to catch any other potential problems.


First you need to remember that fraudsters plan for the holidays just like the rest of us. And they know that this is the time we get scattered and forgetful. Here are a couple of scenarios to think about as you shop and eat your way through the holidays. Take some time to find out what is going on out there and then stay aware.


These people can memorize numbers, names and pictures in a what seems nanoseconds. And, this is most likely what happened to one of my friends. This scheme happens when someone stands behind or within visual range of your activity at a check-out stand (cashier). When you pull out your card to swipe it, most of us hang on to it or set it down while waiting for the cashier to finish what he/she is doing. In that moment, the individual behind you memorizes the card name, number and necessary details. Yes, it’s that fast. They often don’t purchase anything, they excuse themselves from the line with some excuse and get into another line later. They only need to do this a couple of times to get enough card numbers to go and create a fake card and then test it out by purchasing small items. Usually at a grocery store or gas station. If all goes well, they try again with a higher amount and if that works, they go for broke.


Another way is when hand the card to the cashier and he/she is processing the card and the card gets skimmed either along the side of the register or underneath the register. This is a more rare scenario as most of us would see this action. However, if you are at a restaurant, the card goes back with the server and can get skimmed by them and then processed at the restaurant as well.


Also, it is a good idea to make sure the server returns your credit card and not a substitute. ALWAYS check the card returned to you. Accidents do occur, and that could make someone else who gets your card and leaves a happy scammer to, but you can avoid that easily by making sure you check the card you received as well as the receipt you sign.

In closing, it’s always best to Google current fraud schemes. You would be amazed at what fraudsters come up with each season. At the same time, it’s very sad that the same old con-methods continue to work every day. Stay safe and be aware during the holidays.


I have just started to check out this website Scambusters. They have some good information regarding fraud, but they also sell products. I will let you know if I get valuable information later on after some time to review their ongoing newsletters.

Another recent find, today to be exact, is this site InventHelp. They have quite a variety of scam and fraud information. I will report back later on how their information was helpful to me. But they did have some helpful information.

And don’t forget the FED‘s; the love a good take-down on the bad guys. Also, this site IC3 is good for information and to report fraud crimes. They work very closely with the FED’s and have good information for Internet safety protocol and scam information.

Stay Safe and Report Fraud!


July 27, 2010


Filed under: Fraud Schemes,Fraud Trends — fraudjournal @ 2:26 PM
Tags: , , ,

One of the discussions running around the fraud blogs and LinkedIn groups is about how fraudsters have been able to get past CAPTCHA. So is it dead? That question was asked in a 2007 article when Google filed for a patent that would allow computers to read images that contained a graphic of morphed characters. (

And if you ask the internet about CAPTCHA, you will find various requests to locate a program that would essentially ‘kill’ the CAPTCHA program temporarily when dealing with other languages. So is it dead? Not yet. Businesses and websites still are using this program as a security measure. So what is the fuss?

Most of you have already experienced CAPTCHA without knowing it. This is when you are required to type in what you see on the screen (usually a set of twisted or distorted letters, numbers or combo of both) when you purchase or create an account with an online storefront or organization. If you don’t, here is a link to Wikipedia to learn (

Recently in New York, scammers created another work around by setting up a network of users to purchase tickets online from Ticketmaster. The company under indictment ‘’, purchased the maximum of number of tickets to big name concerts and events by employing a vast network of purchasers who could type in the semi-obscured graphic used as a security measure to stop scammers from purchasing more than the allowed number of tickets. These tickets were then scalped online for prices far above the normal retail value. So, now you know why some of those concerts were sold out so fast and so many tickets were for sale online.  You can read the article here: .

So how does this effect the fight against fraud? It means that fraud has truly become a global concern. While it creates jobs in India and China, it also allows fraud rings to branch out and work towards becoming an even bigger menace than before. If the sources of scamming is off-shore, then the process to shut them down becomes much more complicated and deals with multiple jurisdictions. Plus their costs are minimal, they have a dedicated work effort can be a 24/7, and you and I can’t see them at work. It allows them to blend in or hide in plain sight.

The economy is already creating budget havoc for everyone. Law enforcement is already overwhelmed with fraud on the grand scale, which means it is up to you and I to stay aware of what we see on the Internet and around us today. Help your local and regional fraud teams by reporting fraud when you see it. And don’t buy scalped tickets – most often they are not your everyday you and me that ended up with spare tickets. It’s guys just like the scammers ‘’ that stole your right to purchase them at the retail price in the first place.

April 8, 2010

Insurance Scam Alert from Kathleen Sebelius

Filed under: Author's Post,Fraud,Fraud Alerts,Fraud Schemes,Fraud Trends,Insurance — fraudjournal @ 12:23 AM

As the new health-care plan takes effect, we all need to keep each other safe from the recent wave of insurance scams. regarding the new health-care law.  Take time to talk to friends and families, especially senior friends and family members. Do your research by talking to your insurance company or the Dept. of Health and Human Services (HHS).  Know the facts before your act.

 Health and Human Services Secretary Kathleen Sebelius has issued a new fraud alert to the public stating that HHS has been getting reports of fraudsters going door-to-door to sell bogus health-insurance policies, and the calls began right after President Obama signed the new health-care law on March 23, 2010.

 Ms. Sebelius advised that, “…door-to-door salespeople are unlikely to be part of the outreach.” She also advised that some fraudster have set up toll-free phone lines and claim that open-enrollment is for a limited time period, which Ms. Sebelius stated is “Not so.”

 For some of the recent articles got to:

 Or go directly to the Dept. HHS website at:

March 23, 2010

Job Scams – An update

Filed under: Author's Post,Fraud,Fraud Alerts,Fraud Schemes,Fraud Trends — fraudjournal @ 2:07 AM

In my previous post, I provided a copy of the email I received showing how fraudsters lure people into providing information with the promise of a job opportunity. Here is the latest from another ’email account’ but with the same information. For those of you that subscribe to any of the government job boards, it is very important to understand that private companies do not have access to the information and cannot solicit you for jobs. The government job boards are for exactly that – government jobs. NO REALISTIC job will have you utilize YOUR personal bank account for any type of transactions!

Please see the comment I received in response to the Job Scam post.

Thank you for posting this to get people aware of fraud as it is a horrible thing to hit someone when they’re down.  I just wanted to add for everyone that no civilian companies have access to the USAJOBS website as it is a Federal government website so you should never believe any email you get from a civilian company claiming they found you through USAJOBS.  Also, please note that FederalJobs is not the same as USAJOBS.  They are a civilian website ( that says they have government jobs but most are not accurate.  The official URL for USAJOBS is

Remember, always do your research when applying for jobs. Verify the company and the source of the email. Never sign up for auto deposits or provide any personal information via online. If you are unsure of a company, follow your gut instincts. You can always GOOGLE a company.  Listed below is the latest I received to a different email account I use.


Part-time Job for Carol Bacon

HR Manager []

Sent: Monday, March 22, 2010 6:43 AM


Carol Bacon

Dear Carol Bacon ,

Our firm is in the business of processing medical payments with services designed specifically to help physicians, healthcare facilities and medical billing companies collect the patient portion of medical care.

We have found your CV at FederalJob jobseeker’s database, and consider you to be a great candidate for the job which we propose.

Position Description:

The task of the Transfer Manager is receiving payments (to your Bank account) from our buyers in timely manner, sending them to our company in Finland via bank wire transfers, and solving issues associated with these tasks.

If you haven’t bank account, We will find the nearest bank, and help to open a new Bank account there.

Every payment will be accompanied with detailed instructions.

Average Income: $800-$1500 per week.

It is a commission based position – 8% from each completed payment.

General requirements:

Willingness to work from home, take responsibility and achieve higher goals;

Honesty, responsibility and promptness in operations;

Age from 22 to 62 ;

MS Office skills;

5-10 hours per week

If you are interested, please apply here .


protection benefits of such additional features can be high, but only if the age check is reliable more or less eliminated in Sweden and Norway, for example. Consumers have responded to price development and/or have a very limited customer base. Some schemes have closed down after the or via his/her credit card bill. Second, there are also schemes in which the amongst consumers.26 The report states that e-commerce is �still not widely used� (with (POS)) are adapted for other usage or used as supporting tools (e.g. mobile phone messages to with an approximate share of 30% of all non-cash payments. 65 The common framework consists of two European Parliament and Council directives: first Directive 2000/46/EC on the As a general observation, online merchants might benefit from technical enhancements at physical providers issuing payments instruments in the form of e-money (Ireland, Denmark, Sweden and the United vulnerabilities, requiring permanent adjustments to be made to business strategies and security

END OF Email

March 19, 2010

Job Scam Example

Filed under: Author's Post,Fraud,Fraud Alerts,Fraud Schemes,Fraud Trends — fraudjournal @ 6:33 PM

Like most of us, the loss of jobs has hit someone we know. The latest statistics touted was that at least 1 in 5 to 1 in 4 of us are without jobs. And not that fraudsters are bad enough as it is, they have stooped to a new low – scamming those desperately seeking jobs by offering a position that will auto deposit your paycheck after you pass a telephone interview. I received one of these and I forward this information to you to share with others.

The sender is ProteusInc, with an email of If you google, this you will find several companies with this as a business name or product line. However, there is one website that has noted this is a hoax. Here is what was sent to me stating they got my CV from the USAJobs website.

As usual, we all need to be careful and be cognizant that fraudsters will always find a way to take advantage of us during our lowest times and saddest moments.


Executive Manager position for Carol Bacon

Human Resource Department []

Sent: Tuesday, March 16, 2010 7:56 AM


Carol Bacon

Dear Carol Bacon

The FederalJobs provided us your curriculum vitae. Therefore our company is ready to propound you a work of an “Executive Manager”.

Your charges are:

Record keeping on what you’ve done

Form a list of customers in the USA

The information providing to clients

carrying out of financial transactions within the USA. You will get all the further instructions during an interview over the phone.

Staff claims:

Age: from 25

Citizenship: US

You  need to  have 3-5 free hours every day  to fulfill all your job.

The payment for this vacancy makes up to 5000USD monthly. Money will be carried out to your bank account every month. If you are really interested in our suggestion, please do not delay making a settlement.

For more detailed information please follow this steps:

Register at our webpage There you’ll find a line of “Executive Manager”, where you should complete all the fields carefully. Our security department will control everything.

Sign a agreement with our organization. We’d like to thank you in advance. We really appreciate your will to join our organization.

Pass an phone interview

important element. This concept may comprise more types of money than are legally defined. A legal definition of a transformation. The changeover to a new generation of chip cards based on the instruments, and the merchants’ wish for a broad customer base might also push in the same direction. generally accepted means of payment have to be commercial bank money or emoney. community, researchers and civil society in general. Clearing is the process of transmitting, reconciling and, in some cases, confirming payment orders prior to countries an excellent chance to set the pace and direction in market integration. monitors the market initiatives looking for standards and allowing full automation through the banknotes given substitution into e-money as a means of payment. This may lead to a reduction of central “natural” tendency towards being regional, especially if cultural and language properties are intrinsic • The EBA Clearing, a separate entity of the European Banking Association (EBA), is the operator

END of Email
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